Mengenal Sayyidah Nafisah, Ulama Perempuan Guru Imam Syafi’i

ilustrasi-risalah-muslimah

RISALAH INSPIRA,- Sayyidah Nafisas (145 H – 208 H), seorang perempuan cicit Rasulullah Saw. Beliau merupakan perempuan pemberani, sumber pengetahuan keislaman yang berharga, sekaligus ‘abidah zahidah (tekun dalam menjalani ritual dan asketis). Sebagian orang menyebut dirinya wali perempuan dengan sejumlah karomah.

Saat usia 5 tahun, ia dibawa oleh orangtuanya ke Madinah. Karena ayahnya diangkat menjadi gubernur oleh Khalifah Abu Ja’far al-Manshur. Selama di Madinah, ia melewati hari-harinya dengan berziarah ke makam Rasulullah.

Sayyidah seringkali berada di Raudhah. Di sana, ia seringkali berzikir, berdoa, dan menangis. Di Madinah juga, ia bertemu dan mengaji kepada beberapa perempuan ulama, baik dari kalangan sahabat maupun tabiin sampai menguasai berbagai ilmu, seperti Al-Quran, fiqih, tafsir dan hadis. Hingga ia dijuluki Nafisah al-Ilm atau perempuan ulama.

Saking cerdasnya, sampai suatu ketika, julukan itu ditambahkan menjadi Nafisah al-Ilm wa Karimah ad-Darain atau perempuan ulama dan perempuan mulia di dunia akhirat. Ia juga sering disebut sebagai Abidah Zahidah atau orang yang tekun menjalani ritual ibadah dan asketis. Sebagian orang menyebutnya, wali perempuan dengan sejumlah keramat.

Menariknya, setiap tahun, selama tiga puluh tahun, konon ia berkunjung ke Mekkah untuk melaksanakan haji. Hal tersebut ditempuh dengan berjalan kaki, sambil berpuasa dan salat malam. Saat di masjidil haram ia bermunajat:

“Wahai Tuhanku, wahai pemimpinku, wahai majikanku, anugerahi aku kenikmatan dan kegembiraan dengan rida-Mu kepadaku, mohon jangan jadikan alasan yang membuatku tak bisa memandang-Mu.”

Kesaksian tentang ibadah Sayyidah Nafisah disampaikan oleh Zainab, keponakannya, bahwa selama 40 tahun ia tidak pernah melihatnya tidur malam, tidak juga melihatnya makan di siang hari, kecuali dua hari raya dan tiga hari tasyrik.

Suatu ketika, Zainab bertanya kepadanya, “Apakah bibi tidak menyayangi badanmu sendiri?”

Ia menjawab, “Bagaimana aku menyayangi diriku, sedangkan di depanku ada bahaya yang menghalangiku masuk, kecuali orang-orang yang beruntung?”

Selain itu, Zainab juga mengatakan, bahwa Sayyidah Nafisah hafal Al-Quran dan menafsirkannya, bahkan saat membaca Al-Quran sampai menangis.

Dalam sejarah diceritakan saat menuju Mesir, Sayyidah Nafisah menjadi sangat terkenal. Tidak hanya di daerah Hijaz, seperti Mekkah, Madinah, melainkan juga di Mesir dan Timur Tengah. Saat di Mekkah dan di Madinah, para jamaah haji dan Mesir begitu terkesan dengan pengetahuannya yang luas dan kepribadiannya indah.

Saat di Mesir, ada cerita menarik mengenai pertemuan dan pertemanan Imam asy-Syafi’i dengan Sayyidah Nafisah. Imam Syafi’i sudah lama mendengar nama besar dan ketokohan perempuan ulama Sayyidah Nafisah dan setiap harinya banyak ulama yang datang ke rumahnya untuk mendengarkan pengajiannya.

Sesudah Sayyidah Nafisah tinggal di Mesir selama 5 tahun, Imam Syafii datang mengunjunginya. Sayyidah senang menyambutnya dengan penuh kegembiraan dan kehangatan. Perjumpaan tersebut dilanjutkan dengan pertemuan yang sering. Diantara keduanya saling mengagumi intelektualitas yang dimilikinya.

Saat Imam asy-Syafi’i mengajar di masjid Fustat, ia mampir ke rumah Sayyidah Nafisah. Demikian juga sebaliknya. Konon, dikabarkan bahwa Imam asy-Syafi’i adalah orang yang paling sering bersamanya dan mengaji kepadanya serta sebagai tokoh besar dalam Fiqih.

Dua ulama besar ini sering terlibat dalam diskusi-diskusi yang hangat, ilmiah, dan bersahabat.

Mereka saling menghargai. Saat bulan Ramadhan, Imam asy-Syafii seringkali salat Tarawih bersama Sayyidah Nafisah di masjidnya.

Apabila Imam ays-Syafi’i sakit, ia meminta Sayyidah Nafisah mendoakan kesembuhannya. Saat mendoakan ia mengatakan, “Matta’ahi Allah bi an-nazhar Ila wajhih al-karim.” (Semoga Allah memberinya kegembiraan ketika berjumpa dengan-Nya).

Mendengar ucapan tersebut, Imam Syafi’i paham bahwa ajalnya sudah akan tiba. Ia berwasiat kepada Al-Buwaithi, murid utamanya agar Sayyidah Nafisah mensalati jenazahnya kelak saat wafat dan meminta jenazahnya di bawa ke rumah untuk disalatkan.

Selain Imam Syafi’i, banyak sekali ulama besar dari berbagai mazhab berkunjung ke rumah Sayyidah Nafisah. Diantaranya, Abu al-Faidh Zhunnun al-Mashri, Imam Abu al-Hasan ad-Dinawari, Abu Ali ar-Rauzbari, Abu Bakar ad-Daqqaq, Imam Ismail al-Muzani asy-Syafi’i, Imam Abu Ya’qub al-Buwaithi, Abdullah bin Wahb al-Quraisyi al-Maliki, Imam Abu Ja’far ath-Thawi al-Hanafi, Abu Nasr Sirajuddin al-Mughafiri, Imam Yusuf bin Ya’qub al-Harawi, Imam Abu Zakaria as-Sakhawi, Al-Faqih al-Imam Ahmad bin Zarruq al-Maliki as-Sufi (ahli qiraat besar), Imam Warasy, Al-Imam al-Muhaddits asy-Syirazi, Abu al-Hasan al-Mushali serta masih banyak lagi.

Sumber: Buku Perempua Ulama di Atas Panggung Sejarah Karya KH. Husein Muhammad
(GIN)

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